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Italian Alps

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(italsky Italian ) is a country located in Southern Europe on the Peninsula.

Na severu hraničí s Francií (488 km), Switzerland (740 km), Austria (430 km) and Slovenia (232 km). Within Italy is home to two city-states: Vatican (3,2 km) and San Marino (39 km). Itálii navíc patří území obklopené Switzerland Campione d’Italia. Z východu Itálii omývá Adriatic Sea, z jihu Ionian Sea a ze západu Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea. The total length of the coastline is 7600 km. K Itálii patří dva velké ostrovy ve Středozemním moři: Sardinia and Sicily. The capital city is since 1870 Rome.

Alps leží v mírném pásu s rozdíly mezi vrcholy hor a údolími. Pádská nížina má chladný vnitrozemský charakter. Zbytek území leží v subtropickém středomořském pásu s typickým horkým suchým létem a mírnou zimou bohatou na srážky. Počasí a aktuální teploty v Itálii

Geography the west coast is indented with bays, the east flat. The total length of the coastline is about 7600 km. Surface mostly mountainous. Dominují Západní a Východní Alps, the north over 4000 m n. m. včetně nejvyšší hory Mont Blanc 4807 m n. m.(Mont Blanc). Dolomites are one of the mountain ranges Italian Alps. Rozkládá se v severní části Itálie, east of Bolzano basin. The mountain is not monolithic comb, consists of many smaller, often very different mountain groups Brenta, Marmolada. Znamá jsou také jezera (Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lake Como) vmniklá retreat of Pleistocene glaciers. Celý Apeninský a Kalabrijský poloostrov (Calabria) a největší středomořský ostrov Sicílii (Sicily) fills the Apennines mountains reaching almost 3000 m n. m. Apennine zone is seismically very active. Častá jsou zemětřesení a erupce sopek Vesuvius (Vesuvius), Etna (the highest active volcano in Europe, 3323 m n. m.) and volcanoes in the archipelago, Lipari. Hospodářsky významná je Pádská nížina v okolí řeky Crash. Druhým největším ostrovem Středozemního moře je Sardinia (Sardinia).

Sea – Italy is surrounded by the sea for his character peninsulární. Mediterranean Sea (Originally Mare Nostrum, our sea, as the Romans called him) has been historically divided into four parts: Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea,Ionian Sea and the Ligurian Sea. To the west of Sardinia is the Sardinian Sea (Sardinia Sea) and south odSicílie Sicilian Channel (Strait of Sicily) Maltese and channel (Malta Channel). Sicily from Calabria oddělujeMessinská Strait (Strait of Messina) from Africa and Sicilian channel.

  • sea: Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea
  • bays: Gulf of Genoa, Gulf of Gaeta, Gulf of Salerno, Tarentský Gulf, Gulf of Venice
  • straits: Messina Strait, Strait of Otranto, Bonifácký Strait
  • Islands: Sicily, Sardinia, Elba
  • archipelago: Tuscan Archipelago (Tuscan Archipelago), Campania archipelago (Archipelago Campano), Aeolian Islands (Aeolian Islands), Tremiti Islands(Tremiti Islands), Pelagie Islands, Egadi Islands
  • peninsulas: Apennine peninsula, Salento, Calabrian Peninsula, Gargano
  • Mountains: Apeniny, Alps, Dolomites
  • Lake: Lake Garda (Lake Garda), As, Greater, Lake Trasimeno
  • River: Crash, Adiže (Tyrol), Tibera (Tiber), Arno, Piave, Ofanto, Sineto
  • volcano: Etna, Vesuvius (Vesuvius), Stromboli


– was established in 1861 combination of states in the peninsula. After the First World War in Italy took mocifašisté led by Benito Mussolini. During World War II, Italy sided with Nazi Germany, which eventually led to the defeat of Italy. Kingdom in 1946 replaced the Republic. Already in ancient times, there were many city-states, partially funded under the Greek colonization, and, mainly in the northern part, the cities of the Etruscans. In 8. straight-century. n. the. then several new settlements consolidated city of Rome, které neustálým růstem určovalo dění na Apeninském poloostrově (and not only it) after more than a thousand years. The Roman Empire disintegrated and finally disappeared roku476 n. the. Rome itself remained the center of Christianity after the collapse, when the Apennine peninsula dominated by barbarians. Modern Age – the Apennine peninsula, there were more states. Some of these states were united by King Victor Emmanuel II. into the Kingdom of Italy. Other States (For example, Veneto or the Papal States) were connected successively in the following years. In the First World War fought on the side of Italy from roku1915, po válce připojila území Jižního Tyrolska, port of Trieste and could leave the Dodecanese Islands. Nevertheless, the Italian public was dissatisfied with the results of the war. In 1922 after the march on Rome became prime minister Benito Mussolini. Mussolini created a fascist dictatorship. Gradually dominated the country. Year 1929 he managed to negotiate a settlement with the Pope on the extent of the Papal State.

Abruzzo L'Aquila
Apulia (Puglia) Bari
Basilicata Power
Veneto (Veneto) Venice (Venice)
Campania (Campania) Naples (Naples)
Emilia-Romagna Bologna
Furlansko-Julské Benátsko (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) Trieste (Trieste)
Calabria (Calabria) Catanzaro
Lazio Rome (Rome)
Liguria (Liguria) Genoa (Genoa)
Lombardy (Lombardy) Milan (Milan)
Walking Ancon
Molise Campobasso
Piedmont (Piedmont) Turin (Turin)
Sardinia (Sardinia) Cagliari
Sicily (Sicily) Palermo
Tuscany (Tuscany) Florence (Florence)
Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Alto Adige) Trident (Trent)
Umbrie (Umbria) Perugia
Valle d'Aosta Aosta

National and religious holidays

  • 1. membership – New Year (New Year)
  • 6. membership – Three Kings (Epiphany)
  • Easter Monday – Easter Monday (a movable feast)
  • 25. April – Liberation Day (Liberation Day)
  • 1. May – Labor Day (Labour)
  • 15. August – Assumption (August)
  • 1. November – Hallowmas (Hallowmas)
  • 8. December – Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Immaculate Conception)
  • 25. December – Nativity (Christmas)
  • 26. December – Feast of St.. Stephen (Santo Stefano)

Apeniny – are a mountain range stretching some 1 200 km across Italy (in the direction northwest - southeast) and thus forming the backbone of the country. The highest peak of the Corno Grande in height 2 912 m n. m.Hory are mostly green and wooded, although one side of the highest peak of the Gran Sasso, partially covers the southernmost glacier in Europe (Calderone Glacier). The eastern side of the mountains towards the sea is steep kJaderskému, while the western slopes form a plane. According mountain is also named entire Apennine peninsula.

Alps (German Alps, French Alps, Rhaeto-Romance Alps, italsky Alpi, Slovenian Alpe) Mountains are rozsáhléevropské. The name "Alps" or. French and Latin name "Alps" probably derives from the Latin albus (white) or altus (high). Another possible explanation is the Celtic word "Alps", which indicates the high mountains.

Dolomites – (Italian Dolomiti, German Dolomiten) are one of the mountain ranges Italian Alps. It is located in northern part of Italy, east of Bolzano basin. The mountain is not monolithic comb, consists of many smaller, often very different mountain groups. The area is characterized by typical dolomitic elements such as table surface some massifs, steep walls, towering peaks, jagged rocky ridges and almost bizarre shapes of shields. On the territory of the Dolomites are perhaps all types of mountainous landscape – from mountain meadows along the rocks, with glaciers.

Italian Alps

Mont Blanc Gran Paradisa z, Italy
The highest point Mont Blanc (4 807 m n. m.)
Parent Unit Alps, Eastern Alps, Western Alps
Neighboring units Austrian Alps, Swiss Alps,Slovenian Alps, French Alps
Continent Europe
States Italy
Basin Crash, Adda, Ticino, Tyrol, Piava

Climate The Italian Alps – the northern part is a Central European climate with large temperature variations. Alpine areas have distinctive character with rainfall especially at high altitudes, especially snow. Wettest mountains are the Julian Alps, of which Italy is divided into the eastern part of Slovenia. Average annual precipitation here reaches up 3 865 mm per year. In the western part holds primacy Ortles and Bernina. Among the mountains with the lowest annual rainfall is Pennine Alps, Maritime Alps and the Bergamo Alps. Autumn is considered the most stable month in terms of weather and sunny days. Apply here the fact, that due to the prevailing northwest air flow is the biggest brunt of bad weather concentrated on the peaks of the Zillertal Alps and thus becomes, that on the Austrian side of the rains or snows in Italy is sunny with blue sky. Southern edge of the mountains are under the influence of Mediterranean climate. Northern Italian Lakes Area (Lake Como, Lake Maggiore atd.) represents a kind of oasis climate due to its southern orientation. Although the area is placed between the massifs Pennine Alps in the west and the east of the Alps Orobskými, there is almost Mediterranean climate. It also causes accumulation of warm water lakes, to prevent significant temperature falling below freezing.

River – largest river in the western part of the Italian Alps is Fall (When, 652 km), which rises near the top of Monte Viso in Kottických Alps. The river's watershed while all Alpine rivers and streams, where the water is discharged into the fall of the Adriatic Sea. Significant Alpine rivers flowing into the Oglio Po, Adda, Ticino, Agogna, Stura, Chisone, Varaita aj. The entire basin has a surface Po 70 500 km ². Water levels fluctuate widely. Most important river in the eastern part of the Adige, which forms the western border of the eastern part of. Other important rivers are the Piave, Isarco, Taglimiento to Fella, belonging to the basin of the Adriatic Sea. The only rivers flowing in the east – Brent and West are Rienz. The eastern part is relatively poor in waterfalls. Among the largest and best known include Cascata di Fanes (Dolomites) CI Favarnis (Julian Alps). In contrast, Grajska Alps are very rich in waterfalls and wild mountain stream with a steep incline.

Lakes– among the most visited and most popular places in the Italian Alps Northern Italian lakes – Lake Garda (370 km ²), Lake Maggiore (212 km ²) Lake Como (146 km ²). Lago di Garda is the largest Italian lake. The lakes are remnants of the Ice Age, Alps are reached when the largest width. After the retreat in the countryside obrovskýchledovců made a very deep cirques, are successively fired up water. Jefjordovité deepest lake Lago di Como – 409 m. Most lakes in the Italian Alps does not lie in the foothills, but in the Alpine valleys. In the mountains we go hundreds of smaller lakes and countless lakes and ponds. Highest mountain lake jeLago Verde (2 856 m) in the Monte Rosa massif. The eastern part is much poorer in lake, through the limestone bedrock, here who do not have the size and depth. Examples include Lago di Braies and Lago di Misurina (Dolomites), Lake Anterselva (Ries also), Lake Pieve di Cadore na rece Piava. The Italian Alps are straněJulských Laghi di Fusine and larger Lago del Predil.V Italian Alps, there are two types of vegetation – Mediterranean and Central European. Piedmont and Lombardskánížina are among the most fertile region in Italy.

In Italy there is a dense network of protected territorial units (altogether 306) from national parks (20 throughout the country), over a large number of reservations, natural parks atd.Na the Italian Alps are three national parks :

Eastern Alps – National Park of the Belluno Dolomity – Dolomites and předalpy between Belluno and Feltre.

Western Alps – Stelvio National Park – (německy Stilsferjoch National) the territory of South Tyrol in the mountains Ortles. National Park of Gran Paradiso – lies in the Alps Grajských.

From natural parks and protected sites bring significant example. Adamello – Brenta, Bergamo Alps Natural Park, Julian Prealps Nature Park, Prealps Nature Park Carnische, Parco Naturale Dolomiti d'Ampezzo and other.

Breakdown Italian Alps

Hochgall a Wildgall v Pohoří Rieserferner

Grajské Alpy a Gran Paradiso od jihu

Italian Eastern Alps

  • Julian Alps (JoF in Montasio, 2 753 m) – in Italy
  • Carnic Alps (Hohewarte, 2 780 m)
  • Dolomites (Marmolada, 3 343 m)
  • Zillertal Alps (Hochfeiler, 3 510 m)
  • Rieserferner (Hochgall, 3 436 m)
  • Fleimstalské Alps (Cima d'Asta, 2 847 m)
  • Vicentinské Alps (Top Twelve, 2 341 m)
  • Garda Mountain (Monte Cadria, 2 254 m)
  • Brenta (Cima Tosa, 3 173 m)
  • Sarntaler Alps (Hirzer top, 2 741 m)
  • Stubai Alps (Zuckerhütl, 3 507 m)
  • Ötztal Alps (White ball, 3 738 m) – in Italy
  • Ortles (Ortler, 3 905 m)
  • Adamello-Presanella (Top Presanella, 3 558 m)
  • Bergamské Alpy (Pizzo Coca, 3 052 m)
  • Bernina (Piz Bernina, 4 049 m)
  • Livigno (Top of Piazzi, 3 439 m)
  • Plate (Piz Platta, 3 392 m)

Italian Western Alps

  • Tessinské Alpy (Basodino, 3 274 m)
  • Tambo (Pizo Tambo, 3 279 m)
  • Walliské Alpy (Dufourspitze, 4 634 m)
  • Masiv Mont Blanc (Mont Blanc, 4 807 m)
  • Grajski Alps (Gran Paradiso, 4 061 m)
  • Kottické Alps (Monte Viso, 3 841 m)
  • Alpes Maritimes (Cima Argentera, 3 297 m)
  • Ligurian Alps (Punta Marguareis, 2 651 m) – in Italy
  • Sesvenna (Piz Sesvenna 3 205 m)