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(French La France, pronunciation / fʀɑs /), official name of the French Republic (francouzsky Republic française, pronunciation / ʀepyblik fʀɑsɛz /) is a democratic state, a majority of the (sometimes referred to as Metropolitan France) Located in Western Europe. Part of the French Republic also overseas departments and overseas territories in the Caribbean, AJižní North America, in the Indian Ocean and Oceania. French metropolitan France due to its geographical shape often nicknamed L'Hexagone (hexagon).
Is a member of the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO) and is one of the founding members of the European Union (EU). Furthermore, France is one of the founding members of the United Nations. It is one of the five permanent UN Security členůRady veto, one of the eight recognized nuclear powers and a member of the world's seven leading industrialized nations and Russia – G8. Together with the United Kingdom, France is so far the only existing colonial powers.
Boundaries of modern-day France roughly agree with those from the days of ancient Gaul, inhabited by a Celtic tribe of the Gauls. Galiebyla conquered in 1. straight-century. n. the. Romans and took Galovéčástečně Latin language and culture. The romanization is also related to the early spread of Christianity from 2. and 3. century. Gallic eastern borders were 4. century Germanic tribes occupied, mainly Franky, who later gave the country its present name. The existence of France as an independent state is traditionally dated from the empire rozděleniFrancké 843 in (France orientalis) in the east, Francia occidentalis in the west and in the middle Lothraringii. The Eastern Frankish Empire became the Holy Roman Empire (today Germany), western part of France gave birth today.
Charlemagne's descendants ruled France until 987, when he was crowned king Hugh Capet. His descendants, Capetian and their side branches of Valois and Bourbon gradually through a series of wars and territory heritage united under a central sovereign power. The monarchy reached its greatest power under Louis XIV, who ruled 2. half 17. and early 18. century. At that time France had a great influence on European policy, ekonomii a cultivate. It was the most populous country in Europe and third in the world after China and India. At the same time, however, gradually sank into record debt and economic decline.
The decline of the empire under the successors of Louis XIV. increasingly deepened and was one of the causes of the French Revolution, which broke out in 1789 and led 3. September 1791 to replace the absolute monarchy, constitutional, 22. September 1792 was subsequently raised First Republic. The government, in fact, remained in the hands of the revolutionary cabinet. 22. August 1795 was promulgated Constitution of the Year III, government embraced directoire. Then in 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte ruled Republic, became first consul (Consulate) and 18. May 1804 coup established the First French Empire, which became the first monarch. Napoleon briefly ruled most of Europe, fought with the United Kingdom, Prussia, Austria and Russia, founded new kingdoms, to the fronts of handpicked members of his family. After the defeat at the Battle of Leipzig was not able to face the allied armies in April 1814 abdicated. Then there was a restaurant Bourbon Kingdom. During the Congress of Vienna escaped from exile on Elba and briefly restored the Empire. Was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
In 1830 The July Revolution gave rise to a constitutional monarchy headed by the side branches of Bourbon, replaced by 1848 Second Republic. Its existence was nearing completion by selecting the incumbent president and the Emperor's nephew Louis Napoleon Emperor (as Napoleon III.), who was captured after losing the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, founded the Third Republic.
Although France came out victorious from the First and Second World War, lost during 20. century gradually former superpower status. Po II. World War vzniklaČtvrtá Republic. In 1958 raised the current Fifth Republic, led by General Charles de Gaulle.
In recent decades, France made peace with Germany, and in conjunction with him working on a political and economic integration of Europe. France has been at the forefront of countries that support accelerating expansion of the monetary union, she wanted to achieve a more unified and capable European policy, defense and security apparatus. In a referendum on the adoption of the Treaty on the European Constitution, however, 55 % French citizens voted against, which these plans were significantly deters.
Although France usually perceived as a single nation-state, looking at the early history of France is seen, that (words André Maurois) "Some French race never existed."The French are characterized by considerably diverse ethnic backgrounds, which is the same as the history of the result of many effects. Throughout its history, France experienced a number of waves of immigration (which is also indicative of the current France). This fact is evident in realizing geographical position of France on the western edge of the European continent. Its influence was France place, where you stopped the invasion and settled intruders. Moreover, although the present-day France has a natural boundary, from a historical point of view was not quite closed. On its territory since the beginning of history as we see nejrozličnějšími peoples - Celts, River, Romans, Germany, Franky, Normany, Jews, Spaniards,Portuguese, Italy, Algerians, and many others.
The most significant traces in the history of France left influences: 1. Galu (which was the portion of the Celts, who settled in France), 2. Romans and 3. Franks, the first two at the turn of the millennium fused together and the third gave France the name. Access to immigrants in France was almost exclusively assimilation, which means, that culture, language and genetic disposition newcomers dissolve between there earlier established population, which is, of course, to some extent, enriching. In terms of civilization was most important influence Gallo-Roman culture, which is reflected in its present form the French, which rank among the Romance languages. The occurrence of many regional languages, which usually do not have a Latin origin too common (bretonština, baskičtina, Corsican, Flemish and Alsatian dialect of German), However, it illustrates, The formation of the French nation was much more complex and ambiguous. "Although centuries of centralizing pressures cemented the Frenchman into a single nation with a strong sense of national identity", this nation was shaped by a number of different ethnic groups. And it is from this historical diversity comes cultural and linguistic richness of today's France.
The largest part of the territory of France (metropolitan France) Located in Western Europe, where the northeast border with Belgium (length of the border 620 km) a Lucemburskem (73 km), the east with Germany (450 km) and Switzerland (572 km), in the southeast of Italy (515 km) and south to Spain (649 km), Andorra (56,6 km) a Monakem (4,5 km). The French Republic also consists of territories in North and South America (where to French Guiana 673 km long border with Brazil and 520 km se Surinamem), Indian, and the Pacific, Caribbean (island of Saint Martin is divided into French and Dutch sections of the boundary length 10,2 km) a Antarktidě. (declared sovereignty in Antarctica is not recognized by most other countries - see the Antarctic treaty system).
Mainland France has an area of 543 965 km ². In the north and west, the landscape is flat with a slight shimmer, the rest of the area, mostly hills and mountainous. In the French Alps, is the highest bodzápadní Europe, Mont Blanc (4 810 m). Other countries include mountainous region Pyrenees, Massif Central, Jura Mountains, Vosges, Armorský Masiv aArdenny. The largest rivers are the French Loire, Rhone (rooted in Switzerland), Garonne (in Spain),Part of the Seine and the Rhine flow. Loire is also the longest French river.
|The highest point||Mont Blanc (4 808 m n. m.)|
|Parent Unit||Western Alps, Alps|
|Neighboring units||Italian Alps, Swiss Alps|
Rhona, Inheritance, Isere, Durance,Drome
French Alps is an imaginary mountain system will find him in France and involving himself in all pohoříAlp located in the territory of the country. Typical French Alps are not just high glaciated mountains and vast rocky spikes (French Aiguilles), dramatic gorges and jagged ridges. Addition, there is also a large number of mountain lakes and tarns, Alpine meadows, varied nature etc. French Alps lie in the two regions: Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.
The French Alps are geologically very varied and inconsistent. They are characterized by a complex nappe structure, that prevail in the old crystalline cores (granite, rula). This nucleus is locally banked younger sedimentary rocks, mainly limestone. These geological differences and considerable climatic differences in individual areas have led to a rich variety of shapes.
Geographic breakdown Alpine groups in France is quite complicated. The exception is the main Alpine ridge, that just breaks in France from north to south and east. Addition, there is also a number of other scattered mountain groups, which says "Předalpy" or "foothills".
French Alpine Group
Chablais-Faucigny (Haute Cime, 3257 m)
Masiv Mont Blanc (Mont Blanc, 4808 m)
Beaufortain (Roignais, 2999 m)
Aravis-terminal-Bauges (Point Breakthrough, 2753 m)
Chartreuse (Chamechaude, 2082 m)
Vercors (Grand Veymont, 2341 m)
Vanoise (Grande Casse, 3852 m)
Grajski Alps (Pointe de Charbonnel, 3752 m)
Dauphineské Alps (Barre des Ecrins, 4102 m)
Devoluy (The Obiou 2790 m)
Kottické Alps (Monte Viso, 3841 m)
Drome (Mont Ventoux, 1909 m)
Provence Alps (Tete de'l Estrop, 2961 m)
Alpes Maritimes (Top of Gélas, 3143 m)
Ligurian Alps (Punta Marguareis, 2651 m)
The development of the settlement is signed impassable significant and high relief areas. The largest city is Grenoble Olympic. In sunny and warm valleys built several smaller towns like Chamonix,Annency, Chambéry Gap.
Administratively, the territory of the French Alps is split into several units: Savoy, Haute Savoie, Isere,Hautes-Alpes, Drome, Vaucluse, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, Be a Alpes-Maritimes.
The Three Valleys (Courchevel, Méribel, La Tania, Brides-les-Bains, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Les Menuires,Val Thorens and Orelle) : 338 slopes, 600 km of railways.
Portes du Soleil (Avoriaz, Châtel, Morzine, Les Gets, Saint-Jean d'Aulps, La Chapelle d'Abondance,Abundance, Montriond, The Swiss part of the resort) : 288 slopes, 650 km of railways.
Paradiski (La Plagne, Peisey-Vallandry, Les Arcs) : 239 slopes, 420 km of railways.
Milky Way (Montgenèvre, Italian territory centers) : 214 slopes, 400 km of railways.
Evasion Mont-Blanc (Combloux, Megève, Saint-Gervais, Saint-Nicolas-de-Véroce, Les Contamines Monjoie) : 183 slopes, 420 km of railways.
Espace Killy (Tignes, Val d'Isere) : 137 slopes, 300 km of railways.
Grand Massif (Flaine, Les Carroz, Morillon, Samoens, Sixt) : 134 slopes, 265 km of railways.
Aravis (La Clusaz, Manigod, Croix Fry, Merdassier, Le Grand-Bornand) : 133 slopes, 220 km of railways.
The Big Red (L'Alpe d'Huez, Vaujany, Auris-en-Oisans, Oz-en-Oisans, Villard Reculas) : 117 slopes, 236 km of railways.
Serre Chevalier : 111 slopes, 250 km of prepared tracks.
La Forêt Blanche (Risoul, Whose) : 104 slopes, 180 km of railways.
Sybelles (The Corbier, Toussuire, The Bottières, Saint-Jean-d'Arves, Saint-Sorlin-d'Arves, Saint-Colomban-des-Villards) : 96 slopes, 310 km of railways.
Valloire and Valmeinier : 83 slopes, 150 km of railways.
Grand Domaine (Valmorel, Saint-François-Longchamp) : 82 slopes, 150 km of railways
Espace San Bernardo (La Rosière, La Thuile – Italy) : 73 slopes, 150 km of railways.
Les Deux Alpes and La Grave : 69 slopes, 220 km of railways.