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(pol. Poland), the official name of the Republic of Poland (PR, pol. The Republic of Poland, RP) is a country located in Central Europe. Poland borders with Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Belarus and Ukraine to the east and Lithuania and Russia (Kaliningrad region) in the north. From the north, Poland has access to the Baltic Sea 770 km coastline. The surface is mostly flat, Mountains form most of the southern boundary.
The beginnings of the Polish state and its Christianization go back to 10. century; Kingdom of Poland, roku1569 which deepened union with Lithuania, was one of the most powerful European states, but disappeared in three partitions of Poland (1772—1795). Year 1918 Poland was restored as a republic. When 2. World War I, that country very badly affected, Poland was the year 1989 Socialist Republic.
Poland's s 38 million inhabitants eighth most populous nation in Europe; compared to previous periods, however, constitute a year 1945 the overwhelming majority of Poles, religiously Roman Catholics. The largest concentration of population and industry in Upper Silesia. The capital is Warsaw, in the early modern period it was Krakow.
Poland is among other things. member of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Visegrad Group.
Dining climate is at the intersection of continental and oceanic Eastern Central European type. There are long, cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, humid summers. The average temperature in January is regionally -8/3 ° C and in July 20/27 °C. The average annual rainfall is 600 mm, decreases from north to south and east, conversely in the mountains, where it reaches up 1200 mm.
Overall, it is protected in Poland 101 588 km ² territory, which represents 32,1 % land area. Nature conservation in Poland mainly concentrated in 23 National Parks:
Babiogórski, Bialowieza, Biebrzański, Bieszczadzki, Tucholskie, Drawieński, Gorce, Table Mountain,Kampinoski, Karkonoski, Magurski, Narwiański, Paternal, Pieniński, Poleski, Roztoczański, Slowinski,Świętokrzyski, Tatra, Warta Mouth, Wielkopolski, Wigierski, Wolinski
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- Permanent holidays
- 1. January New Year (New Year)
- 6. January Three Kings (Three Kings)
- 1. May Labour Day (Labour Day)
- 3. May Constitution 3. May (1791) (The adoption of the Constitution 3 May)
- 15. August Assumption, The Polish Army (Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Polish Army Day)
- 1. November All Saints (All Saints)
- 11. November Independence Day of Poland (1918) (Restoration of Independence)
- 25. December - 26. December Christmas (Christmas)
- Floating holidays
- Easter Sunday (Resurrection of the Lord - Easter Sunday)
- Easter Monday (Easter Monday)
- Corpus Christi - Corpus Christi (Body and Blood of Christ – Corpus Christi) - Thursday, 60 days after Easter Sunday