Auschwitz (polsky Oświęcim, německy Auschwitz, slovensky Osvienčim, romsky Aušvica nebo Osvěnčim)
je polské čtyřicetitisícové okresní město v Malopolském vojvodství ležící při ústí řeky Soly do Visly.
První písemné zmínky pocházejí z roku 1179. The city is now a major tourist destination,
což se odráží na jeho průmyslu, which focuses primarily on the provision of accommodation and catering capabilities. The city has railway and several nearby factories, které zde zbyly jako smutný pozůstatek po II. World War I.
Zájezdy Polsko on-line
View, which saw millions of people … Auschwitz
Koncentrační tábor Auschwitz-Birkenau
Za druhé světové války bylo město přičleněno k Německé říši a byl zde postaven nejprve koncentrační tábor Auschwitz I v areálu bývalých kasáren. Later, roku 1942, byl na druhé straně města vybudován rozsáhlý vyhlazovací tábor Auschwitz II – Birkenau (Březinka) a menší táborAuschwitz III – Monowitz u blízké vesnice Monowice.
Brief history of the camp and its affiliates
Initial concentration camp Auschwitz (Auschwitz I.) byl založen roku 1940 v nehostinném bažinatém místě nedaleko historického města Osvětim. The basis for him to become a Polish cavalry barracks. The underlying reason why there has not been a mass extermination, but the need to arrest large numbers of Poles. The capacity of this camp was about 15-20 thousands of prisoners.
Year 1941 začal být realizován plán tzv. “Final Solution of the Jewish Question”, So plan the murder of the Jewish race as a whole. For this purpose, the 3 km vzdálené vsi Březinka vybudován tábor Auschwitz II. (Březinka = Birkenau). Jeho kapacita v roce 1944 dosáhla 90 thousands of prisoners. Build it were forced to help Soviet POWs.
Year 1942 bylo zahájeno masové vyvražďování, running daily by thousands of victims. The camp housed 4 gas chamber with cremation. A day to kill and burn up 10 000 people. V táboře byli vražděni nejen Židé, ale prakticky všechny národnosti okupované Evropy. Tábor se stal místem působení neblaze proslulých lékařů SS, zejména Josefa Mengeleho. These doctors conducted experiments on people and newcomers to ramp divided the camp on the, who are ready to kill, for you, who are designated tortured slave labor and later killed, and finally to the (especially children), who fits the inhuman experiments.
In 1942-1944 bylo vybudováno dalších 40 subcamp of Auschwitz complex. The most important of these was Auschwitz III camp. – This, which was established in cooperation with the firm IG Farbenindustrie AG. Tato firma vyráběla granulovaný plyn Cyklon B určený k použití v osvětimských plynových komorách.
Když se blížila Rudá armáda, Nazis took most of the surviving prisoners to other KT, gas chamber and crematorium blew up and tried to destroy documentary evidence of murder. I tak ale zůstalo dost nezvratných důkazů o těchto zločinech proti lidskosti. KT Osvětim byl osvobozen Rudou armádou dne 27. January 1945, that this also gave freedom 7 thousands of prisoners, who stayed in the camp after the evacuation by the SS.
Services of a local guide KT Auschwitz in Czech, be ordered min. 1 week ahead. Tour with a local guide takes about 4-5 hours (for groups of max 25 people. It is required to take the group on a tour of KT local guide!!!). If there is a local guide in Czech can interpret from NJ / CZ or AJ / CZ
Memorial and Museum Auschwitz – Birkenau http://www.auschwitz.org.pl/
(počeštěně Vělička) je město v jižním Polsku v blízkém okolí Krakova. Since 1999 patří do Malopolského vojvodství. Městská práva udělil osadě roku 1290 král Přemysl II. In 2008 should 19 300 resident.
Pod městem se nachází Solný důl Wieliczka – one of the world's oldest salt mines (nejstarší je v městě Bochnia, 20 miles from Wieliczky), který je používán od prehistorických dob.
Latin phrase “Magnum Sal” (Great Salt, pol. Wielka Sól), from which is derived the present name of the town, pochází z listu papežského legáta Jiljí z let 1123-1125. During the following centuries, the name changed to its present form – Mine.
Zájezdy Polsko on-line
Wieliczka Salt Mine (polsky Wieliczka Salt Mine) se nachází pod městem Wieliczka v blízkém okolí Krakow. Byl v provozu nepřetržitě od 13. století až do prvního desetiletí 21. century, kdy byla z důvodu vysokých nákladů těžba soli ukončena.
Důl je 327 m hluboký. Celková délka chodeb dosahuje 300 km, přičemž veřejnosti je zpřístupněno přibližně 2 % z celkové délky chodeb. All corridors extending to a total of nine levels, which are linked either large chambers, special tunnels, or shafts and elevators.
Turisté si zde mohou prohlédnout 3,5 km dlouhou trasu, which includes a tour of historic statues and mythical figures, made of rock salt. In addition to a real scientific explanation for the origin of large salt deposits are also visitors approached the legend about the origin of the mine, associated with medieval monarchs Polish and Hungarian.
Noteworthy also vaulted hall, chapel, underground lake and Exhibition, approaching the history of salt mining. Mine is often described as a "Polish salt cathedral".
Over the centuries, mine was visited by many famous people, mezi něž se řadí např. Mikuláš Koperník, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, Dmitrij Ivanovič Mendělejev, Boleslaw Prus, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Robert Baden-Powell, Jacob Bronowski (who made the movie Rise of Man), Karol Wojtyła (pozdější papež Jan Pavel II.), bývalý prezident USA Bill Clinton, významní panovníci a mnozí další.
Během druhé světové války byl důl využíván německými okupanty pro válečnou výrobu.
Salt mine became Boleslaw Prus inspiration for his novel Labyrinth scenes Pharaoh.
In 1978 byl solný důl Wieliczka zařazen na seznam světového kulturního dědictví UNESCO jako jedna z vůbec prvních památek v zemi. Today it is a major tourist attraction; visit him expeditions from many countries (v současné době si důl prohlédne více než milion návštěvníků ročně ). Tours are held in many languages, Czech language must be ordered 1 month forward. In addition to well-known tourist routes, is located 64 – 135 m below the surface, there are also geological expeditions for experts in the field of mineralogy and mining. In several halls of salt in underground mine, is konají corporate events, charity event, professional seminars…
We provide in this area REQUEST SERVICES GUIDE, DEMAND corporate party-event, SEMINARS salt mine, For companies from all sectors of.
Tip accommodation for groups and school trips – HOSTEL KRAKOW CENTRUM
Hostel Centrum Krakow
Hostel Centrum Krakow
hostel v samém centru Krakowa nabízí ubytování zejména pro nenáročné návštěvníky královského města a studenty za příjemnou cenu.
Double and multiple rooms. Breakfast Buffet.
Price from 300,- CZK per person
Na našem webu máte možnost rezervovat také ubytování on-line.
(polsky Warsaw, pronunciation is the main (since 1596) and largest city of Poland. In 2010 should 1 720 781 resident, with surrounding agglomerations 3 003 000. Warsaw situated in central Poland in the historic Mazovia in the middle reaches of the Vistula in Warsaw Basin at an average altitude 100 m n. m. Zájezdy Polsko on-line
Warsaw it is also the capital of Mazovia Province. In the capital, is developed industry, especially manufacturing, steel, electronics and automotive.
Flanked by more than 60 educational institutions, especially Warsaw University (University of Warsaw), University of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, Warsaw University of Technology (Warsaw University of Technology), Warsaw School of Economics (School of Economics) and further. There are over 30 theaters, including the National Theatre and opera and has the headquarters of the National Philharmonic Orchestra. Accommodation in Warsaw on-line
The first fortified settlement in what is now Warsaw settlement was Bródno v 9. and 10. century and Jazdów in 12.a 13. century. After, What Vévoda of Plock, Boleslav II. Mazovia attacked in 1281 the Jazdów, Founded new headquarters at the small fishing village Warzsowa. At the beginning 14. century, this place has become one of the seats of Mazovia Province and in 1413pak capital of Mazovia. After the extinction of the local provincial status line in 1526 Province was incorporated under the Polish crown. In 1529 Warsaw became the first seat of the Polish Sejm, permanently housed here Sejm since 1569. Year 1573 gave the name of Warsaw Warsaw Confederation, agreement of the Polish nobility tolerance of different religions in the Polish Kingdom. Accommodation in Poland on-line
Due to its convenient central location between Vilnius and Krakow in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Warsaw became the capital of the community and at the same time in 1596 the capital of Poland, here when King Sigismund III. Vasa moved the royal court from Krakow. Warsaw was the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when the monarchy was attacked Prussia and Warsaw became the capital of the province of New East Prussia. Year 1807 the city was osvobozenoNapoleonovou army on the Vistula and the city becomes a metropolis Warsaw Regional. In roce1815 after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo brings together former powers Austria, Russia and Prussia(The Congress of Vienna), according to which Poland was under the influence of imperial Ruska.To recreated a Polish constitutional monarchy under his influence. The uprising against Russian domination in a letech1830 1863 only increased repression against the Polish population.
After regaining independence of Poland after the end of the First World War in 1918 Warsaw again became the capital of the newly forming state. In 1919 Poland came into conflict with Bolshevik Russia on the historical territory of Ukraine and Lithuania. The Battle of Warsaw (1920) Polish troops completely destroyed the Red Army troops attacking the city and thus thwarted the attempt of Lenin and the Russian Bolsheviks to connect with German, French and Hungarian Bolsheviks to dominate Europe.
The Second World War was started 1. September 1939, when Germany invaded the western part of Poland. It was also 17. September 1939 attacked Poland from the east by the Soviet Union. Country capitulated after six weeks of fighting. West Poland was annexed by the German Reich and east to the Soviet Union. The central part of Poland including Warsaw was under the administration of the pro-Nazi government (General Gouvernment). During the invasion in 1939 Warsaw was bombed and destroyed 10 when 15% buildings in. Although it was a significant loss, in later times had to be Nazi plans for the city completely destroyed and preserved just as important transfer point.
During the Nazi occupation of the city were all higher educational institution immediately closed and Warsaw Jewish population – Several hundred thousand people, about 30 % the city's population - were herded into ghettos tzv.Varšavského. When the Germans as part of Hitler's "final solution" tried to liquidate the ghetto, there was a Jewish uprising. Despite the heavy shelling and outnumbered the ghetto remained defend nearly a month. After the fighting were those, survivors, massacred.
In July 1944 Soviet troops advanced through Polish territory, The Germans then retreated to Warsaw. Stalinnebyl favor of the idea of independence of Poland, Therefore, the Polish government in exile in London gave orders to the Polish underground Home Army ("Army"), to try to gain control of the city, before they arrive Russians. Dne 1. August 1944, when the Red Army approached the city quickly, Provincial army and most of the population started Warsaw rebellion.
Despite Stalin's hostility towards Poland Poles expected, the Soviet soldiers help them against their common enemy. However, when the Red Army came to Warsaw, Soviet offensive was abruptly stopped and the Germans could ruthlessly suppress the uprising. Although the rebellion was the time scheduled for 48 hours, defenders keep 63 days. Finally had to surrender the capital of Poland. Home Army soldiers were taken to POW camps in Germany, civilian population was expelled from the city. Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of surrender and ordered, that the city was razed to the ground, libraries and museums looted or burned. When 17. January 1945 Soviet troops crossed over the Vistula, found, that Warsaw has almost ceased to exist. Through 85 % the town was destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle. The surviving fighters Terran army Russian NKVD killed or sent to Siberia.[source?]
The number of victims of wartime events was then estimated at 800 000, These are primarily Jews and victims of the uprising.
After the war, taking power prostalinská government of President Bolesław Bierut and Warsaw became the capital of the communist Polish People's Republic. This naturally aspired urgent issue to address capital renewal. According slogans and then began “the nation to build a new Warsaw”. It was necessary not only to restore historic buildings and the Royal Castle, but mainly terraced houses. The original narrow streets, which were conducted in routes centuries old ways replaced by modern boulevards conducted in north-south and east-west direction, linked together roundabouts. Even though much of the original houses replaced, Some of the early 20. century and earlier are preserved. Many churches were then restored to its original appearance.
New dominating metropolis became the Palace of Culture – built in the style of socialist realism, like “gift peoples of the Soviet Union, the Polish people”. It was first completed in 1955.
In 1980 was renovated historic Old Town entered into the historical heritage.
The development of road transport in the spirit of the new city was accompanied by construction of transport. New Central Station, lying on an important thoroughfare Warsaw Jerozolimskie Alleys, is located underground, and with a track, led under the center of the metropolis helped simplify the traffic situation in the city and make quick connections between eastern and western trains. Tram-way, Warsaw which has already pre-war times, the zmodernizovala, the new high-speed roads appeared moderníautobusy. That konci 80. years, began the construction of the metro.
Metropolis but still waiting for big development. Houses from the fifties and sixties began soon add high-rise buildings. Already in 70. years started to grow first in the north and the center of town, silhouette metropolis, then added buildings such as Mariott Hotel and Blue Center. New times a year 1989 then brought the full opening of western investors. Creating additional office buildings, but also business center.
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(pol. Poland), the official name of the Republic of Poland (PR, pol. The Republic of Poland, RP) is a country located in Central Europe. Poland borders with Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Belarus and Ukraine to the east and Lithuania and Russia (Kaliningrad region) in the north. From the north, Poland has access to the Baltic Sea 770 km coastline. The surface is mostly flat, Mountains form most of the southern boundary.
The beginnings of the Polish state and its Christianization go back to 10. century; Kingdom of Poland, roku1569 which deepened union with Lithuania, was one of the most powerful European states, but disappeared in three partitions of Poland (1772—1795). Year 1918 Poland was restored as a republic. When 2. World War I, that country very badly affected, Poland was the year 1989 Socialist Republic.
Poland's s 38 million inhabitants eighth most populous nation in Europe; compared to previous periods, however, constitute a year 1945 the overwhelming majority of Poles, religiously Roman Catholics. The largest concentration of population and industry in Upper Silesia. The capital is Warsaw, in the early modern period it was Krakow.
Poland is among other things. member of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Visegrad Group.
Dining climate is at the intersection of continental and oceanic Eastern Central European type. There are long, cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, humid summers. The average temperature in January is regionally -8/3 ° C and in July 20/27 °C. The average annual rainfall is 600 mm, decreases from north to south and east, conversely in the mountains, where it reaches up 1200 mm.
Overall, it is protected in Poland 101 588 km ² territory, which represents 32,1 % land area. Nature conservation in Poland mainly concentrated in 23 National Parks:
Babiogórski, Bialowieza, Biebrzański, Bieszczadzki, Tucholskie, Drawieński, Gorce, Table Mountain,Kampinoski, Karkonoski, Magurski, Narwiański, Paternal, Pieniński, Poleski, Roztoczański, Slowinski,Świętokrzyski, Tatra, Warta Mouth, Wielkopolski, Wigierski, Wolinski
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- Permanent holidays
- 1. January New Year (New Year)
- 6. January Three Kings (Three Kings)
- 1. May Labour Day (Labour Day)
- 3. May Constitution 3. May (1791) (The adoption of the Constitution 3 May)
- 15. August Assumption, The Polish Army (Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Polish Army Day)
- 1. November All Saints (All Saints)
- 11. November Independence Day of Poland (1918) (Restoration of Independence)
- 25. December - 26. December Christmas (Christmas)
- Floating holidays
- Easter Sunday (Resurrection of the Lord - Easter Sunday)
- Easter Monday (Easter Monday)
- Corpus Christi - Corpus Christi (Body and Blood of Christ – Corpus Christi) - Thursday, 60 days after Easter Sunday